Understanding Variable Visibility and Scoping in JavaScript

4 min readSep 5, 2023


JavaScript is a versatile and widely used programming language, known for its dynamic and flexible nature. When writing JavaScript code, it's crucial to understand how variable visibility and scoping work, as it directly impacts how your code behaves and how variables are accessed.

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1. Function Scope

JavaScript has a concept called "function scope," which means that variables declared within a function are only accessible within that function. This is often referred to as "local scope." Let's look at an example to illustrate this:

function scopeExample() {
const localVar = "I am local";

// Output: I am local

// Error: localVar is not defined

In this example, localVar is defined within the scopeExample function and cannot be accessed outside of it. This is a fundamental aspect of JavaScript's scoping rules.

2. Lexical (Static) Scope

JavaScript uses lexical or "static" scoping, which means that a function can access variables from its containing (or "parent") function. This behavior is determined by the structure of your code at the time it is written, rather than how it's executed. Let's see this in action:

function outer() {
const outerVar = "I'm from outer";

function inner() {

// Output: I'm from outer


In this example, the inner function can access outerVar because it's within the lexical scope of the outer function. Lexical scoping allows for the creation of closures, which are powerful and often used in JavaScript to encapsulate data and behavior.

3. Block Scope with let and const

Traditionally, JavaScript had function-level scope. However, the introduction of let and const in ES6 (ECMAScript 2015) brought block-level scope to the language. Variables declared with let and const are scoped to the nearest enclosing block (commonly denoted by curly braces {}). This is a departure from the behavior of var, which is function-scoped.

if (true) {
let blockVar = "I'm a block-scoped variable";

// blockVar is not accessible here

With block-scoped variables, you have more control over where your variables are visible, reducing the risk of unintentional variable pollution.

4. Hoisting

JavaScript has a behavior known as "hoisting," where variable and function declarations are moved to the top of their containing scope during compilation. While the variable declarations are hoisted, their assignments are not. This can lead to unexpected behavior if you're not aware of it:

// undefined
var hoistedVar = "I'm hoisted";

In this example, hoistedVar is declared at the top of its scope, but its value assignment happens later in the code. As a result, accessing it before the assignment returns undefined.

5. Global Scope

Variables declared outside of any function or block have global scope, which means they can be accessed from anywhere in the code. While global variables can be useful, it's essential to use them sparingly and with caution to avoid potential issues with naming conflicts and code maintainability:

const globalVar = "I'm global";

function accessGlobalVar() {

Global variables are accessible from any part of your code, but they can also lead to unintended side effects if not managed carefully.

6. Closures

Closures are a powerful aspect of lexical scope in JavaScript. They occur when a function retains access to variables from its containing scope, even after that scope has exited. Closures are widely used in JavaScript to create private data and encapsulate behavior:

function createCounter() {
let count = 0;
return function () {

const counter = createCounter();
// 1

// 2

In this example, the inner function retains access to the count variable from its outer scope (createCounter). Closures are essential for creating modular and maintainable code.

7. Shadowing

Variable shadowing occurs when a variable declared in an inner scope has the same name as one in an outer scope, effectively hiding the outer variable within that inner scope:

const shadowVar = "I'm from outer";

function shadowExample() {
const shadowVar = "I'm from inner";

// "I'm from inner"

In this case, the shadowVar declared inside the shadowExample function shadows the outer shadowVar. Accessing shadowVar within the function refers to the inner variable.

8. Best Practices

To write clean and maintainable JavaScript code, consider the following best practices:

  • Use const by default for variable declarations. Only use let when you need to reassign the variable.
  • Avoid global variables whenever possible. Use modules and closures to encapsulate and manage your code.
  • Be mindful of variable naming to prevent naming conflicts and make your code more readable.

9. Module Scope

In modern JavaScript (ES6 and later), modules have their own scope. This means that variables and functions declared in a module are not accessible from outside the module by default. This feature helps prevent naming conflicts and organizes code more effectively.

In conclusion, understanding variable visibility and scoping in JavaScript is crucial for writing reliable and maintainable code. JavaScript's function scope, lexical scope, block scope, hoisting, global scope, closures, and shadowing are essential concepts to grasp to become a proficient JavaScript developer. By following best practices and leveraging these scoping mechanisms, you can write code that is more predictable, modular, and easier to debug.

Some Best tutorials to learn from:

  1. MDN Web Docs - JavaScript
  2. W3Schools - JavaScript Tutorial
  3. freeCodeCamp - JavaScript Curriculum
  4. Codecademy - JavaScript Course
  5. Udemy - JavaScript Courses
  6. GetJSJobs.com — Javascript Jobs