What are computational graphs vs sequential layers in Neural Networks

2 min readNov 13, 2023

Computational graphs and sequential layers are both concepts related to the representation and organization of neural networks, particularly in the context of deep learning. Let’s explore each of these concepts:

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Computational Graphs:

Definition: A computational graph is a graphical representation of the flow of data and operations in a computational model. It is used to represent mathematical expressions or algorithms, including those used in neural networks. Nodes in the graph represent mathematical operations, and edges represent the flow of data between operations.

Key Points:

  1. Flexibility: Computational graphs offer flexibility in expressing complex computations involving different types of operations.
  2. Node-Based Representation: Each node in the graph represents a specific operation (e.g., addition, multiplication, activation function).
  3. Dynamic or Static: Computational graphs can be either static (fixed structure) or dynamic (structure can change during runtime).

Example: Consider a simple computational graph for a linear regression model:

Input (X) ----> Multiply (W) ----> Add (b) ----> Output

In this graph, “Multiply” represents the multiplication of input features by weights, and “Add” represents the addition of bias.

Sequential Layers in Neural Networks:

Definition: Sequential layers refer to the organization of a neural network in a sequential manner, where each layer is processed one after the other. This is a common architectural design, especially in feedforward neural networks, where the output of one layer serves as the input to the next.

Key Points:

  1. Layer-by-Layer Processing: In a sequential model, data flows through the network layer by layer, from the input to the output.
  2. Simplicity: Sequential models are straightforward and easy to understand, making them suitable for many tasks.
  3. Popular in Feedforward Networks: Commonly used in feedforward neural networks where the information flows in one direction without cycles.

Example: A simple sequential model for a feedforward neural network might look like:

model = Sequential([
Dense(64, activation='relu', input_shape=(input_dim,)),
Dense(32, activation='relu'),
Dense(output_dim, activation='softmax')

Here, Dense represents fully connected layers, and the sequential structure denotes that the data flows through these layers sequentially.



  • Computational Graphs: More flexible for expressing complex computations with non-sequential dependencies.
  • Sequential Layers: More rigid but simpler for feedforward architectures.


  • Computational Graphs: Can handle a broader range of computations, including dynamic structures.
  • Sequential Layers: Well-suited for straightforward tasks and common architectures.

Use Cases:

  • Computational Graphs: Useful for research, custom architectures, and dynamic models.
  • Sequential Layers: Commonly used in standard architectures, especially for tasks like image classification.

In practice, many deep learning frameworks allow for a combination of these approaches. For example, TensorFlow and PyTorch provide a dynamic computational graph while also offering high-level APIs for constructing sequential models. The choice between computational graphs and sequential layers depends on the complexity of the task and the desired level of flexibility.